In some ways, the success of treating this common chronic non-communicable disease (NCD) – as WHO has dubbed it – made way for effective planning to manage others. The success of multi-center RCTs for hypertension led to the concept of a very large multi-center study using one single variable intervention (aspirin for preventing CAD or ACE I for systolic heart failure) (48). In many ways, this eventually led to the modern concept of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM), which is now the cornerstone of scientific medicine.
65. Savergnini SQ, Ianzer D, Carvalho MB, Ferreira AJ, Silva GA, Marques FD, Peluso AA, Beiman M, Cojocaru G, Cohen Y, Almeida AP, Rotman G, Santos RA. The novel Mas agonist, CGEN-856S, attenuates isoproterenol-induced cardiac remodeling and myocardial infarction injury in rats.PLoS One. 2013;8:e57757. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057757.CrossrefMedlineGoogle Scholar
The appropriate therapy depends on the cause of excessive aldosterone production. A CT scan with dynamic protocol may help localize an adrenal mass, indicating adrenal adenoma, which may be a nonsecreting incidentaloma or a hypersecreting adenoma. If the results of the CT scan are inconclusive, adrenal venous sampling for aldosterone and cortisol levels should be performed.
Anteroposterior x-ray from a 28-year old woman who presented with congestive heart failure secondary to her chronic hypertension, or high blood pressure. The enlarged cardiac silhouette on this image is due to congestive heart failure due to the effects of chronic high blood pressure on the left ventricle. The heart then becomes enlarged, and fluid accumulates in the lungs, known as pulmonary congestion.
Blood clots are the natural way that the body stops internal bleeding when there is a cut or injury, but when it occurs for no apparent reason it can be harmful and cause narrowing or a blockage in the pulmonary arteries. When a blood clot blocks the arteries, the patient can develop pulmonary embolism or pulmonary hypertension, which is the fourth WHO pulmonary hypertension group. Once again, the disease can be reversed with proper treatment to address the blood clots.
Medicines are available if these changes do not help control your blood pressure within 3 to 6 months. Diuretics help rid your body of water and sodium. ACE inhibitors block the enzyme that raises your blood pressure. Other types of medicines— beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and other vasodilators—work in different ways, but their overall effect is to help relax and widen your blood vessels and reduce the pressure inside the vessel. [See also the free government publication “Medicines to Help You: High Blood Pressure” (PDF) from the US Food and Drug Administration.]
Over 50% of patients with hypertension will require more than one drug for blood pressure control.  In stage 1 hypertension, a single agent is generally sufficient to reduce BP, whereas in stage 2, a multidrug approach may be needed. Initiation of 2 antihypertensive agents, either as 2 separate prescriptions or as a fixed-dose combination, should also be considered when BP is more than 20 mm Hg above the systolic goal (or 10 mm Hg above the diastolic goal). 
Stroke: A stroke is four to six times more likely for individuals with high blood pressure. Sometimes called a brain attack, a stroke happens when blood flow to parts of the brain are cut off, causing brain cells to be deprived of glucose and oxygen and result in permanent brain damage. Signs of a stroke are very sudden, such as numbness in one side of the body, dizziness, blurred vision, or confusion. If you experience these symptoms, call 911 immediately.
Hypertensive urgencies, where asymptomatic blood pressure is more than 180/110 mm Hg, without organ damage, and emergencies, where organs are damaged and blood pressure measurements can be higher than 180/120 mm Hg, must be treated immediately. They may require hospitalization so that intravenous medications can be given and monitored because, if untreated, they can quickly result in organ damage.
Following suspicion of pheochromocytoma (labile, elevated blood pressure [BP]; paroxysmal hypertension with headache palpitations, pallor, perspiration),  the presence of a tumor should be confirmed biochemically by measuring urine and plasma concentrations of catecholamine or their metabolites. Keep in mind that catecholamine testing is subject to an increased rate of false positives, which can be due to medication effects or measurement conditions. In most situations, computed tomography scanning or magnetic resonance imaging may be used to localize the tumor in the abdomen. In the absence of abdominal imaging, nuclear scan with metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) may further help with the localization. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning and octreotide scanning may also be used.
Emerging evidence based on small randomized controlled trials suggests that dark chocolate may lower BP via improved vascular endothelial function and increased formation of nitric oxide. A meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials that compared dark chocolate with placebo confirmed a significant mean SBP reduction of -3.2 mm Hg and DBP reduction of -2 mm Hg in hypertensive and prehypertensive subgroups.  However, several important questions needs to be answered before dark chocolate can be universally recommended as a lifestyle intervention.
Gary Edward Sander, MD, PhD, FACC, FAHA, FACP, FASH is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Chemical Society, American College of Cardiology, American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Federation for Clinical Research, American Federation for Medical Research, American Heart Association, American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, American Society of Hypertension, American Thoracic Society, Heart Failure Society of America, National Lipid Association, Southern Society for Clinical Investigation
The goals of therapy for renovascular hypertension (RVHT) are maintenance of normal blood pressure (BP) and prevention of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The therapeutic options include medical therapy, percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) and stenting, and surgical revascularization. These options must be individualized, because no randomized studies document the superiority of one option over another.
Medications used to lower blood pressure include diuretics (e.g., hydrochlorothiazide*), beta-blockers (e.g., atenolol, metoprolol), ACE inhibitors (e.g., ramipril, enalapril, lisinopril), calcium channel blockers (e.g., nifedipine, amlodipine), angiotensin II receptor blockers (e.g., losartan, valsartan), and direct renin inhibitors (e.g., aliskiren).
Recruitment for this phase started same time in 1964 as with the first phase group but being less severe disease, and this study needed larger sample size and longer follow-up. They were followed for a longer duration (mean 3.8 years). Using the same active treatment as in the first study, this study achieved an average fall in diastolic BP by 19 mmHg in the treatment group. The results showed significant mortality and morbidity benefits (16).
Your doctor may recommend a 24-hour blood pressure monitoring test called ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to confirm if you have high blood pressure. The device used for this test measures your blood pressure at regular intervals over a 24-hour period and provides a more accurate picture of blood pressure changes over an average day and night. However, these devices aren't available in all medical centers, and they may not be reimbursed.